single-loop

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Maximum difference in an array

Given an array A[] of integers, find out the maximum difference between any two elements such that the larger element appears after the smaller element. In other words, we need to find max(A[j] - A[i]), where A[j] > A[i] and j > i. This is an excellent problem to learn problem-solving using divide and conquer, transform and conquer and a single loop.

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Valid Mountain Array

Given an array X[] of n integers, return true if and only if it is a valid mountain array. The array X[] is a mountain array if and only if n >= 3 and there exists some i with 0 < i < n - 1 such that: X[0] < X[1] <...X[i-1] < X[i] and X[i] > X[i+1] > ...> X[n - 1]. In other words, we call the array mountain array when the array is strictly increasing and then strictly decreasing.

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Leaders in an array

Given an integer array X[] of size n, write a program to find all the leaders in the array X[]. An element is a leader if it is strictly greater than all the elements to its right side. So the largest and last element of an array is a leader by default. This is an excellent problem to learn problem-solving using a single loop and variables.

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Find Max Consecutive 1's in an Array

A binary array X[] is given where elements are either 0 or 1. Write a program to find the maximum consecutive ones. The subarray with max continuous 1's can be present anywhere, starting from some index i and ending at some index j. This is an excellent problem to learn problem-solving using the sliding window and a single loop.

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Find Product of Array Except Self

Given an array X[] of n integers, write a program to find an array product[] such that product[i] is equal to the product of all the elements of X[] except X[i]. We need to solve this problem without using division operations. This is an excellent problem to learn problem-solving using prefix array and a single loop.

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Fizz Buzz Problem

Given a number n, write a program that outputs the string representation of numbers 1 to n. If the number is divisible by 3, we must say “Fizz”. If the number is divisible by 5, we must say “Buzz”. If the number is divisible by both 3 and 5, we must say “Fizz buzz”. This is an excellent problem to learn coding concepts like if-else, loops, etc.

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Number of buildings facing the sun

Given an input array height[] which represents the heights of buildings, write a program to count the number of buildings facing the sunset. It is assumed that the heights of all buildings are distinct.

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Swap List Nodes in Pairs

Given a singly linked list, write a program to swap every two adjacent nodes and return its head. If the number of nodes are odd, then we need to pair-wise swap all the elements except the last element.

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Count distinct elements in every k size window

Given array X[] of n integers, write a program to return the count of distinct numbers in all windows of size k.

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Find the next greater element for every element in an array

Given an array, find the next greater element for every element in the array. The next greater element for an element is the first greater element on the right side of the array. This is one of the best problems to learn problem-solving using stack.

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Roman to Integer

Given a Roman numeral, write a program to find its corresponding decimal value. Roman numerals are represented by seven different symbols: I , V, X, L, C, D and M.

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Reverse a linked list

Write a program to reverse a linked list. A head pointer of a linked list is given and our task to reverse the entire list so that when the resulted list is traversed it looks like we are traversing the original list from tail to head.

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Longest Consecutive Sequence

Given an array X[] of n integers, write a program to find the length of the longest consecutive elements sequence. In other words, we need to find the length of the longest sub-sequence such that elements in the subsequence are consecutive integers. The consecutive numbers can be in any order.

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Find Majority Element in an Array

You are given an array X[] consisting of n elements, write a program to find majority element in an array i..e return the number which appears more than n/2 times. You may assume that the array is non-empty and the majority element always exists in the array. A majority element is an element that appears more than n/2 times, so there is at most one such element.

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Maximum Subarray Sum (Kadane’s Algorithm)

Given an array X[] with n elements, we need to write a program to find the largest contiguous subarray sum. A subarray of array X[] of length n is a contiguous segment from X[i] through X[j] where 0<= i <= j <= n. Kadane algorithm idea is intuitive, using a single loop and few variables to solve the problem. We can use a similar idea to solve other coding problems.

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n Repeated element in 2n size array

In an array of size 2n, there are n+1 unique elements, and exactly one of these elements is repeated n times. Return the element repeated n times.

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Remove duplicates from sorted array

Write a program to remove the duplicates from the sorted array. For this we are given a sorted array, the task is to remove the duplicate elements such that there is a single occurrence of each element in the array.

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Sort an array of 0s, 1s, and 2s —Dutch National Flag Problem

Given an array X[] consisting of 0s, 1s, and 2s. Write a program to sort the array of 0’s, 1’s, and 2’s in ascending order. This is a famous coding interview problem asked in facebook, microsoft and amazon.

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Sort an array in a waveform

Given an array of integers, sort the array into a wave-like arrangement. In other words, An array A[0..n-1] is sorted in wave form if A[0] >= A[1] <= A[2] >= A[3] <= A[4] >= ….This problem has been asked during google coding interview.

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Find the minimum and maximum value in an array

Given an array X[] of size n, we need to find the maximum and minimum element present in the array. This coding problem has been asked during facebook and microsoft interview.

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Equilibrium Index of an Array

Write a program to find the equilibrium index of an array. An array's equilibrium index is an index such that the sum of elements at lower indexes equals the sum of elements at higher indexes. This is an excellent coding question to learn time and space complexity optimization using several approaches.

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